Such types are known as twin-goal (chicken and eggs) breeds, whether or not variations in adult muscles size occur (Table step 1)

Such types are known as twin-goal (chicken and eggs) breeds, whether or not variations in adult muscles size occur (Table step 1)

The aim of it efforts are to analyze the end result from breed and you may decades for the eggs manufacturing together with egg additional and internal quality in the four Italian dual-objective breeds , in the beginning and some weeks after than very first months putting interest you to definitely taken place, correspondingly, at the end of june/beginning of trip along with cold temperatures, not as much as changeable ecological standards.

dos.step one. Animals and you may Rearing Conditions

Four Italian chicken types, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and you will Robusta Lionata (RL), have been experienced into the study. You pounds away from adult ladies was step one.twenty-five kg when you look at the PP, 2.31 kg during the Emergency room and you will 3.05 kilogram when you look at the RM and you will RL. Their supply is the Veneto region (Italy): PP is a classic regional reproduce; the provider try old returning to the XIX century, but zero direct study into the their genetic provider exists. One other types manufactured within the Veneto within the 1950s: new Emergency room reproduce comes from Sussex (tinted eggshell breed) and Rhode Isle (brownish eggshell breed) breeds, while toward RM and RL types, Brown Orpington and you will White The usa, a couple brownish eggshell types were used . Plus the adult body weight, such types disagree in their plumage along with: it’s golden from inside the PP, Er shows erminate plumage, RM plumage is actually predominantly white with black colored extremities in several nations of your body, black colored feathers regarding primaries and you will end and you will RL suggests a tawny plumage with black feathers off primaries and you can end. All of the breeds (Contour S1) tell you single brush and you can place tinted eggshell egg (Contour S2).

dos. Information and techniques

Birds out-of for every single breed hatched at the same time (last half from e ranch of your own Heart having Chicken Biodiversity Preservation on the Veneto area (it routinely offers up this new rearing of them types also when it comes to egg production getting incubation and you will brooding), in the Northern Italy (45°02?53? N), regarding hatching to your pubertal ages and you can about installing period, and that started regarding the prevent out-of june on the start of autumn (Contour step 1), with regards to the breed. Eating, rearing standards (photoperiod, temperature) and you can prophylaxis strategies were a similar towards five breeds, since off hatching toward end of your learnt months, which was when you look at the , in the 53 months of age. The new recently hatched chicks was kept indoors in first 4 weeks regarding lives, on a green heat coming down from thirty two so you’re able to 24 °C, around infra-red light lamps, on the litter. Within step 1.5 days of age, the fresh new birds received 100 % free accessibility outdoor rooms, from spring in order to trip and you can winter months. For each and every breed (60 hens) got 100 % free the means to access outside (5 meters 2 /bird) room (armed with linear drinkers), where the hens existed for hours on end, also to indoor (cuatro hens/m 2 ) area (timber shavings and you may straw litter, having perches and you may game feeders), used mainly getting putting eggs (collective nests) at night; the space (indoor and outdoor) open to per breed is actually separated of the netting.

At the start of laying (around 22 months old into reproduce having before onset of putting), when you look at the Sep–October, according to the reproduce, new photoperiod was sheer and decreasing, according to the seasons plus the geographic condition of your trial station during the Northern Italy (on average, 12L:12D), and also for the second period (out of 38 weeks of age, from December so you can 53 months old), fake white was slowly improved (from inside the interior space, incandescent bulb, regarding the 60 lux) to track down an excellent photoperiod off 14L:10D. The fresh new photoperiod try regulated from the a timekeeper, plus it are achieved by switching on the fresh new light an hour or so just before dawn and you will shutting off they an hour shortly after sundown. This new outside ecological temperature is actually ten ± step 3.cuatro °C and you can 11 ± step three.0 °C, respectively, towards very first (right away out-of Oct towards prevent regarding November) and 2nd (from the beginning out-of January with the end away from March) laying periods, if data for the produce performance and egg quality were compiled. The brand new animals received ad libitum commercial feeds based on its psychological phase (three diversified commercial feeds in the broadening months). Toward earliest laying stage (26–33 weeks of age, lower than decreasing absolute photoperiod), in the event that types already been putting, the brand new wild birds were given a commercial pelleted offer (PG = 16%, Myself = eleven.8 MJ/kilogram, Ca = step 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and you can maize (PG = 9.1%, Myself = MJ/kg), during the a ratio of 1:1. It’s well worth remembering one to, at that age, only the twin-objective and you can tinted eggshell breeds demonstrated an adjustable onset of laying and egg design rates, whereas the hens belonging to the almost every other kinds of brand new Conservation Centre to possess Biodiversity and you can hatched at the same time of your learnt types, like the light eggshell breeds, did not initiate laying (Padovana breed) otherwise they displayed a very light installing activity (Polverara reproduce), never ever reaching the endurance out of 10% hen–time eggs development. The cause of the option of the newest Preservation Hub, to not ever play with a rss to possess installing hens while in the this period, try because of perhaps not pressuring the newest pullets so you can egg manufacturing during a period having coming down temperature and you may photoperiod. The birds grew outdoors, under favourable criteria for skeletal health, travelling floor and below solar power radiation. Regarding back yard for each reproduce, the current presence of grass offered to the fresh new wild birds was large during the the newest broadening several months than just within onset of laying, and that taken place following summer months, in the event the precipitation try scarce and you will don’t accommodate a beneficial lawn regrowth. Off 38 so you’re able to 53 weeks of age, and you may not as much as increasing photoperiod, the brand new hens was basically fed a professional pelleted provide to have putting (PG = 16%, Me = 11.5 MJ/kilogram, California = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). All the nourishes consisted mostly out-of maize and you can soybean.

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